Frequently asked questions about the RunA (Rainis un (and) Aspazija) linked-data collection

1. What is the RunA collection?

The collection provides the opportunity to discover the heritage of Rainis and Aspazija from a new perspective – in the form of interconnected information. Questions can be asked by writing to

2. What are the objects in the collection?

The collection comprises the works of Rainis and Aspazija, contemporary annotations thereto, correspondence, documents, presentations, photographs, postcards, posters, caricatures, audio and video recordings, etc.

3. What is an entity?

An entity is anything (thing, being, phenomenon or concept) that can be individually named and identified. Entities can be specific or abstract, real or imaginary.

Entities have properties (attributes) that allow them to be divided into classes. The RunA collection uses the following entity classes: Person, Institution, Place, Time, Concept, Work, Event, Buildings and structures.

In the RunA collection, entities are important in the annotating of texts.

4. What do the annotations to RunA works and correspondence include?

All the texts in the collection are annotated, marking entities (see What is an entity?), so identifying and classifying them. The annotations form a dataset which enables meaningful links to be made between objects in the RunA collection (see What are the objects in the collection?), and between entities, as well as the entities mentioned in the text, with data from external web sources.

5. What are open data?

Open data are freely available information with no restrictions on its re-use that can be edited and processed automatically by freely available applications. Source: Freedom of Information Law (Informācijas atklātības likums).

The RunA collection is a collection of open data. The contents of the collection’s objects (except for some under copyright) and metadata about its objects and entities are freely usable, open data.

6. What are linked data?

Linked data provide a way of publishing, on the web, structured, computer-understandable information about things, their properties, and links between them.

In the RunA collection, linked data is used to publish open, structured data about collection objects, entities and links between them (e.g., a link from an annotation to a letter to an entity mentioned in the letter). Entity data also contain references to data on these entities found in other sources of information.

More information about linked data Linked Data

7. In what formats can RunA data be retrieved?

Open data for each collection object and entity are available in their web pages in linked-data formats (RDF/XML and Turtle RDF). These data include basic information about the object/entity and their links to other collection objects/entities.

On the collection web pages, object and entity data can be accessed:

a) by pressing the [Turtle RDF] or [RDF/XML] buttons (the Turtle RDF format is easier to use);

b) adding an extension (.ttl or .rdf) to the address of the page – e.g.

For more information about linked data and these data formats: RDF Primer

8. What is a web of data?

A web of data visually depicts the links between the objects and entities of the collection. The collection has two types of webs.

The web of objects is a graph in which two vertices (collection objects) are linked when both documents mention the same entity.

The web of entities is a graph in which two vertices (entities) are linked when both entities are mentioned in the same annotated document.

9. What does Works and Events (look under Tools) represent?

It depicts the creation of works by Rainis and Aspazija against the background of events in the poets’ lives, both in Latvia and in the context of wider events.

10. What is the Time Zone tool (look under Tools)?

The Time Zone tool enables information about the entities most frequently mentioned in the selected time period to be viewed.

11. Can RunA be accessed from mobile devices?

Access is also provided for tablets and mobile phones. Mobile phone users should allow for limited system functionality because of small screen size.

12. Does the collection include any copyrighted information?

A small part of the collection’s objects are protected by copyright (e.g., certain posters, photographs). These objects can only be viewed by the institutions (such as the Latvian National Archives, NLL) that hold these objects. Metadata on these objects are freely available online.

13. How does one correctly reference the collection, its objects and entities?

When citing or referencing the RunA collection, a specific reference and link to the collection is mandatory: the Rainis and Aspazija collection

When quoting or referring to RunA objects or entities, a specific reference and link to the object or entity is mandatory. For example: J. Raiņa Daugawa: sehrdeeņu dzeesma, .

14. How can I participate in the creation of the RunA collection?

Please contact us by e-mail at on the potential inclusion of new objects in the collection.